1. Technical Information
- Font: Kartika, White
- Minimum duration: 1 second
- Maximum duration: 7 seconds
- 29.97 frames/second (fps) - 210 frames
- 23.98 frames/second (fps) - 168 frames
- 25 frames/second (fps) - 175 frames
- Reading speed (include spaces and punctuation):
- Adult programs - 22 characters per second (cps)
- Chidren's programs - 18 characters per second (cps)
- SDH (Subtitles for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing)
- Adult programs - 25 characters per second (cps)
- Chidren's programs - 20 characters per second (cps)
- Frame gap: 2 frames minimum
Note: Frame gap should be 2 frames or at least 5 frames
All frame gaps of 3-4 frames should be reduced to 2 frames
- Character limit: 42 characters per line
HBO & DISNEY DVD: 40 characters per line
- Max. Number of lines: 2 lines
2. Line Treatment
- If an event can fit on one line, please keep it to one line. Do not split for grammatical reasons.
- For two line events, ensure that you maintain a logical and grammatically correct line break (e.g. after punctuation).
- Always position either top or bottom center. Never have subtitles in any other position.
- An event should be moved to the top if there is text in the lower third of the screen (e.g. credits)
- In cases where the entire screen is covered with text, choose the option that causes the least disruption to the viewer.
- If there is a supplied English Template, the timing for that should be followed. Events may be merged or split if the in-cues and out-cues are maintained. This rule supersedes all the below rules.
- Subtitles should be timed to audio (within 3 frames).
- If extra time is needed for reading speeds, the out-time can be extended by 12 frames past end of audio.
- If dialogue starts within 3 frames of a shot change, pull the in-time to the shot change.
- There should always be a minimum of 2 frames between the out-time of an event and the shot change after it.
- If dialogue ends within 3 frames or less of a shot change, pull the out-time to 2 frames before the shot change.
- While the reading speed is 22 cps, this is not always possible, the following priority should be followed:
- Time to audio and extend by 12 frames past end of audio (if it doesn’t cause the event to cross a shot change and look awkward).
- Let the reading speed go up to 25 cps.
- Merge or split events to help with reading speeds.
- Truncate without losing the meaning of the audio.
- If, after you have tried all of the above, the reading speed is still exceeding 25 cps then the file can be submitted as is, but all the above must have been tried.
- Subtitles should convey the context of the audio as accurately as possible, but do not need to be a word for word translation. This article shows examples of basic syntactical changes - Fotios Karamitroglou: A Proposed Set of Subtitling Standards in Europe.
- Omit superfluous and unnecessary information such as hesitation markers, repetitions, and redundancies (e.g. "You know", "you see" etc).
- Word-level alterations are also possible, but extra care must be taken to keep in context.
6. Dual Speakers
Use a hyphen without a space to indicate two speakers in one subtitle, with a maximum of one speaker per line.
- Do not translate proper names (e.g. John, Mary) unless requested.
- If no approved translations are given, transliterate character names.
- Only translate nicknames if they have a specific meaning or are well-known and have official Malayalam equivalents. (e.g. Stinky Pete)
- Use local language translations for historical/mythical characters (e.g. Genghis Khan, Santa Claus).
- Translate brand names to a generic term if the brand is unknown in India and is relevant to context.
- Do not italicize proper names or company names.
- APPLE MUSIC Artists, songs, albums, apps should match what is in local Apple Music/iTunes. If they are in English keep them in quotes. (e.g. " ")
Terms of address: Use formal or informal terms of address based on the relationship between characters and keep them consistent throughout (unless there is a change in the relationship). When in doubt, use formal terms.
- There should be no spaces before punctuation marks.
- Do not use italics.
For ellipses, use the single smart character (U+2026) instead of three dots/periods.
- Do not use ellipses (3 dots) or dashes when an ongoing sentence is split between subtitle events.
- Use an ellipsis to indicate a significant pause (2 seconds or more) or dialogue trailing off. For a pause (2 seconds or more), there should be a space after the ellipses.
- In the case of a pause (2 seconds or more), if the sentence continues in the next event, use an ellipsis at the beginning of the next event.
- Use an ellipsis without a space for an event starting mid-sentence.
- Use an ellipsis for abrupt interruptions.
- Follow instructions from Pixelogic regarding Main Titles. If instructions were not provided, double check.
ALULA Match Localization Library entry if provided.
NETFLIX Do not include a Main Titles. If mentioned in dialogue, check with Pixelogic.
- Episode Titles: Do not subtitle if they do not appear onscreen, if they do, check with Pixelogic.
NETFLIX Do not include a Episode Titles. If mentioned in dialogue, check with Pixelogic.
- Titles of movies, TV shows or published works: Use official / accepted translations. If none are available, leave in the original language.
13. Forced Narratives / On-screen text
- Only include plot-pertinent Forced Narratives.
- Delete redundant Forced Narratives (e.g. identical to onscreen text/covered in dialogue/appears repeatedly in the video).
- Ensure that Forced Narratives do not cover onscreen text. In the event, there is onscreen text at the top and bottom, place the Forced Narrative in the location easiest to read. If both locations are identically difficult, then place the event at the bottom.
- Never combine a Forced Narrative with dialogue in the same event.
- If a Forced Narrative interrupts dialogue, use an ellipsis at the end of the preceding event and at the beginning of the following event.
- Only translate a speaker’s title once, the first time the speaker appears in the documentary.
14. Foreign Dialogue
- Foreign dialogue should only be subtitled if the viewer was meant to understand it per creative intent in the original version. Please check with the Project Manager to see if you are using a Subtitled or Subtitle-less version of the video.
- Foreign words that are part of a phrase should be translated when possible (e.g. hello, thank you, merci) and transliterated when no accurate translation exists.
15. Numbers, Time & Currency
- From 1 to 10, spell the numbers: "EXAMPLE" etc.
- Above 10, numbers can be written numerically: "EXAMPLE", etc.
- If a number starts a sentence, it should be spelled out.
- Exceptions to the above can be made for space limitations or correct usage (e.g. "2 km", phone numbers, "She was 10 before she turned 11").
- Unit of currency - Should be spelled out (e.g. EXAMPLE)
- Never convert currency.
- Convert to metric system: kilometers (km), Celsius (°C), Kilograms (kg).
16. Quotation Marks
- Use double quotation marks (" ") without spaces for regular quotations.
- Use single quotation marks (' ') without spaces for quotes within quotes.
- Quotes should be used at the start and end of a quote, not at the start of every subtitle.
- Put song titles in quotes.
- Common acronyms should be transliterated (e.g. EXAMPLE)
- Uncommon acronyms should have elaboration if reading speed allows (e.g. EXAMPLE). The elaboration only should happen the first time the acronym is used in the video.
- Do not translate words or phrases repeated more than once.
- If the word or phrase is said twice in a row, time to audio but do not repeat the translation.
- This rule can be ignored if the context uses repetition for emphasis or comedic effect.
20. Censored words
- If a word has been censored in the audio use four asterisks to indicate the censored word.
- If the song is original to the show/movie, check with Pixelogic if translation is required. For all other instances do not translate.
LIONSGATE This rule is for characters singing only. Do not translate background songs.
- Songs in which the lyrics have been altered or parodied for comedic effect can generally be titled.
- Use an ellipsis if the song continues in the background but is interrupted by dialogue.
- Only question marks, exclamation marks and ellipses can be used at the end of a line. Commas can be used within the lyric line, if required.
- Song titles are in quotation marks.
22. Translator Credit
- Do not include a translator credit.
SONY Include a translator credit - "ഉപശീർഷകങ്ങൾ തർജ്ജമ ചെയ്തത്: "
ALULA Include a translator credit.
NETFLIX & NBCUNIVERSAL Include a translator credit.
If a client requests a translator credit and does not specify a format use one of the above prioritizing top to bottom.
23. Language Tag
- Do not translate the [LANGUAGE TAG - Do not Translate] event if present. This is an identifier in English for BD/DVD authors.
24. SDH Instructions - Speaker IDs / Sound Effects
Speaker IDs/Sound Effects
- Use [ ] brackets for speaker IDs or sound effects.
- Only use speaker IDs or sound effects when they cannot be visually identified.
- If a person who is on-screen continues talking off-screen, do not add another identifier for their off-screen dialogue. We assume it's the same person talking until another person is visible or until there is an identifier for a different speaker.
- Do not identify a speaker until their character name has been introduced. Until they are introduced, use generic IDs (e.g. [man], [man 2], [cop], [doctor])
- For documentaries, commentaries, bonus material (VAM) etc. do not identify interviewees by their first name. Only use their last name. You can use first names for the characters from the program, assuming they have been identified that way in the full program.
- Use a generic ID to indicate and describe ambient music (e.g. [rock music playing on radio]).
- Only include plot-pertinent sound effects.
- Never italicize speaker IDs or sounds effects, even if the dialogue is italicized.
- Include single utterances and exclamations (e.g. Oh, Um..., Wow!)
- If translated – Use [in language] (e.g. [EXAMPLE] )
- If not meant to be understood – Use [speaking language] (e.g. [EXAMPLE] )
- Always research the language. Do not use [speaking foreign language] or [in foreign language].
Songs (additional to Section 19)
- Song lyrics should be enclosed with a music note (♪)
- Songs heard within the scene should be identified if possible.
- If a word has been censored in the audio use four asterisks to indicate the censored word.
25. Special Instructions
- Always translate as faithfully as possible (including expletives).Do not use dialect or words that would otherwise introduce a level of obscenity not implied in the content.
- Deliberate misspellings and mispronunciations should not be reproduced in the translation unless plot-pertinent.
Please reference the following for any language-related issues not covered in this document: